Category: Level 4 pages

Unknown or Anonymous Author

Unknown or Anonymous Author

When the author of a work is not known, the title of the work will be used in place of the author. There are some important details to be aware of however. If the...

Webpage on a News Website

Webpage on a News Website

Elements: Author’s Last name, Author’s First and Middle initials, & Last names and initials of other authors, if any. (Date published or updated). Title of webpage italicized. Site Name. URL

Group Author

Group Author

With Abbreviations For group authors with abbreviations, use the full name and the abbreviation in the first citation. Then, use only the abbreviation in subsequent citations. Without Abbreviations For group authors without abbreviations, simply...

Multiple Sources

Multiple Sources

If multiple sources are cited within the same in-text citation, separate each citation with a semicolon. The sources do not need to be alphabetized within the citation.

Personal Communications

Personal Communications

Personal communications, which are considered “nonrecoverable data” by the APA,  are information that readers cannot typically access. These include personal interviews, emails, letters, and phone calls. This information should be cited within the text,...

Intended Audience

Intended Audience

Classmates and professors For an academic audience of classmates and teachers, you have the task of considering a diverse group. You’ll want to think about how much background information your audience will need on...

Long Quotations

Long Quotations

Long quotations should be kept to a minimum in your essay. Additionally, you should only use those parts of the long quotation that you really need. If a passage has a middle section that...

Using Sentences

Using Sentences

Usually, when you find it necessary to quote, you’ll be using a full sentence or two from a text as a quotation. In addition to making sure the quote is necessary and meaningful, be...

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