Direct Quotes | 7th Edition

While academic writing encourages paraphrasing over quoting, there are instances when it is necessary to cite a direct quotation. When doing so, follow the corresponding rules for the in-text citation type and add a page number to the end of the citation.

When using the author or authors’ names within the text (also called a narrative citation), the year citation comes after the author’s name, and the page number citation should be placed after the direct quotation. Be sure to put quoted material inside quotation marks. Place the period after the citation for all quotes shorter than 40 words.

Examples:

According to Smith (2018), “the number of birds in North America has declined by 2.9 billion since 1970” (p. 31).

“The number of birds in North America has declined by 2.9 billion since 1970” (Smith, 2018. p. 31).

NOTE: For multiple pages, use pp. instead of the single p.

No Page Numbers

To cite quotations of material without page numbers, the American Psychological Publication Manual recommends providing section names, heading names, or paragraph numbers—essentially providing readers with necessary information to locate the quotation.

Example:

According to Williams (2019), “gravity is actually the bending of space” (para. 5).

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