Personal Communications | APA In-Text Citations

An envelopePersonal communications, which are considered “nonrecoverable data” by the APA,  are information that readers cannot typically access. These include personal interviews, emails, letters, and phone calls. This information should be cited within the text, but not included in a References list.

When citing a personal communication within the text, include the following information: (Author’s first initial. Author’s last name, personal communication, Date of publication).


Opinions vary when it comes to the correct way to baste a turkey (J. Doe, personal communication, December 8, 2018).

Doe confided that turkey basting is not a precise art (personal communication, December 8, 2018).

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