Slide 1 — Types of Clauses
We have already seen that there are 2 basic types of clauses: independent clauses and dependent clauses.
Slide 2 — Independent Clause
An independent clause may stand alone. It is a complete sentence.
They will offer suggestions.
Marta is majoring in chemistry.
My worst fears have come true.
Slide 3 — Dependent Clause
A dependent clause cannot stand alone.
It does not express a complete thought, and therefore it is not a complete sentence.
if you don’t help us
after they had dinner
while we were sleeping
Here we have added an independent clause to each clause to make a complete sentence.
If you don’t help us, we will be in trouble.
Josh and Ronja felt sleepy after they had dinner.
The storm began while we were sleeping.
Slide 5 — Adverb Dependent Clause
An adverb dependent clause begins with an adverb or adverbial phrase.
as soon as
as soon as they had finished
even though I like it
so that everyone can see the result
As soon as they had finished, they went home.
Even though I like it, it costs too much.
I posted it on the Web so that everyone can see the result.
Slide 7 — Adjective Clause
An adjective clause is another type of dependent clause. An adjective clause describes a noun in the sentence.
that we had wanted
whose meals are overpriced
who greeted us at the door
Again, the above dependent clauses are not complete sentences.
Here we have added an independent clause to each adjective clause to make a complete sentence.
This is the house that we had wanted.
that we had wanted describes the house
whose meals are overpriced describes the restaurant
who greeted us at the door describes the man
Slide 9 — Relative Pronoun
An adjective clause begins with a relative pronoun.
that we preferred
whose climate is warm
who gave me an injection
The program that we preferred was sold out.
Let’s look for an island whose climate is warm.
That is the nurse who gave me an injection.
Slide 11 — Noun Clause
A noun clause is yet another type of dependent clause. A noun clause can take the place of a noun in the sentence.
what he saw
that you are tired
whether you like it or not
what the speaker said
Here we have added an independent clause to each noun clause to make a complete sentence.
He didn’t like what he saw.
I know that you are tired.
Whether you like it or not isn’t the point.
Do you agree with what the speaker said?
Slide 13 — Noun Clause Marker
A noun clause begins with a noun clause marker.
whatever he cooks
why Kendra said that
what to do in this situation
Whatever he cooks is delicious.
I can’t understand why Kendra said that.
What to do in this situation isn’t clear.
Let’s look again at the relationship between independent and dependent clauses.
A dependent clause cannot stand alone. It needs an independent clause in order to be a complete sentence.
If you don’t help us, we can’t finish on time.
The phone rang while we were eating dinner.
That is the hospital in which my sister was born.
Where Pat went is a mystery to everyone.
Slide 16 — Activity Introduction
On the next few slides you will see some clauses.
Decide if each clause is an independent clause or a dependent clause. Click on the best choice.
NOTE: No capital letters or punctuation will be used.
Slide 17-27 — Questions
Slide 28 — Summary Slide
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