Types of Clauses

Transcript Slides 1-6

Slide 1 — Types of Clauses

We have already seen that there are 2 basic types of clauses: independent clauses and dependent clauses.

Slide 2 — Independent Clause

An independent clause may stand alone. It is a complete sentence.

Examples:

They will offer suggestions.
Marta is majoring in chemistry.
My worst fears have come true.

Slide 3 — Dependent Clause

A dependent clause cannot stand alone.

It does not express a complete thought, and therefore it is not a complete sentence.

Examples:

if you don’t help us

after they had dinner

while we were sleeping

NOTE: The above dependent clauses are all adverb clauses. They are not complete sentences.

Slide 4

Here we have added an independent clause to each clause to make a complete sentence.

Examples:

If you don’t help us, we will be in trouble.

Josh and Ronja felt sleepy after they had dinner.

The storm began while we were sleeping.

Slide 5 — Adverb Dependent Clause

An adverb dependent clause begins with an adverb or adverbial phrase.

Examples of adverb or adverbial phrases:

after
although
as
as soon as
because
before
even though
if
since
so that
unless
until
when
whether
while

Slide 6

More examples of adverb dependent clauses:

as soon as they had finished

even though I like it

so that everyone can see the result

Used in complete sentences:

As soon as they had finished, they went home.

Even though I like it, it costs too much.

I posted it on the Web so that everyone can see the result.

Transcript Slides 7-12

Slide 7 — Adjective Clause

An adjective clause is another type of dependent clause. An adjective clause describes a noun in the sentence.

Examples:

that we had wanted

whose meals are overpriced

who greeted us at the door

Again, the above dependent clauses are not complete sentences.

NOTE: Adjective clauses are also called relative clauses.

Slide 8

Here we have added an independent clause to each adjective clause to make a complete sentence.

Examples:

This is the house that we had wanted.

that we had wanted describes the house

There is the restaurant whose meals are overpriced.

whose meals are overpriced describes the restaurant

The man who greeted us at the door was happy to see us.

who greeted us at the door describes the man

Slide 9 — Relative Pronoun

An adjective clause begins with a relative pronoun.

Examples of relative pronouns:

that
which
who
whom
whose
where

NOTE: Sometimes these are called “clause markers” because they mark the beginning of a clause.

Slide 10

More example of adjective dependent clauses:

that we preferred

whose climate is warm

who gave me an injection

Used in complete sentences:

The program that we preferred was sold out.

Let’s look for an island whose climate is warm.

That is the nurse who gave me an injection.

Slide 11 — Noun Clause

A noun clause is yet another type of dependent clause. A noun clause can take the place of a noun in the sentence.

Examples:

what he saw
that you are tired
whether you like it or not
what the speaker said

Slide 12

Here we have added an independent clause to each noun clause to make a complete sentence.

Examples:

He didn’t like what he saw.

I know that you are tired.

Whether you like it or not isn’t the point.

Do you agree with what the speaker said?

Transcript Slides 13-27

Slide 13 — Noun Clause Marker

A noun clause begins with a noun clause marker.

Examples:

how
that
what
when
where
which
who
whom
whose
why
however
whatever
whenever
wherever
whichever
whoever
whomever

Slide 14

More examples of noun dependent clauses:

whatever he cooks

why Kendra said that

what to do in this situation

Used in complete sentences:

Whatever he cooks is delicious.

I can’t understand why Kendra said that.

What to do in this situation isn’t clear.

Slide 15

Let’s look again at the relationship between independent and dependent clauses.

A dependent clause cannot stand alone. It needs an independent clause in order to be a complete sentence.

Examples:

If you don’t help us, we can’t finish on time.

The phone rang while we were eating dinner.

That is the hospital in which my sister was born.

Where Pat went is a mystery to everyone.

Slide 16 — Activity Introduction

On the next few slides you will see some clauses.

Decide if each clause is an independent clause or a dependent clause. Click on the best choice.

NOTE: No capital letters or punctuation will be used.

Slide 17-27 — Questions

Slide 28 — Summary Slide

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