Images & Multimedia

9th Edition8th Edition
MLA core elements with 2 containers and 3 potential supplemental elements

Image — Photograph or Artwork
Most often, images and artwork will only need one container. The main difference in a citation for an online work vs. viewing the work firsthand is the location element. Online will often use a URL (most often without http://), and an in-person viewing will list the physical location where the artwork was viewed. There is a question mark after the date in the first citation as the exact date is unknown.

Image Viewed In Person

Theotokopoulos, Domenikos. St. James the Less. 1595?, Hyde Collection, Glens Falls, NY.

Elements
Elements used in this citation example are author, title, publication date, and location.

Image Viewed Online

Cassatt, Mary. “La Toilette.” 1890. The Met: The Collection, Drawings and Prints, www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/337064.

Elements
Elements used in this citation example are author, title, date as a supplemental element, title of container, and location.

Online Video
Videos accessed via the web will most likely need just one container.

"Digoxin Nursing Pharmacology NCLEX (Cardiac Glycosides)." YouTube, uploaded by RegisteredNurseRN, 9 Mar. 2019, www.youtube.com/watch?v=S73GT32EE48.

Elements
Elements used in this citation example are title, title of container, contributor, publication date, and location.

Television Program
Television programs may need two containers. In addition to the original airing information, you may need a second container to show how you accessed the program.

NOTE: When the item is part of a whole (an episode within a series for example), the title is contained within quotation marks and not italicized.

Television Viewed Online

“Episode 1.” Call the Midwife, season 11, episode 1, BBC, 20 Mar. 2022. WMHT Public Media, 2022, www.pbs.org/video/call-the-midwife-season-11-episode-1/.

"In the Graveyard." New Amsterdam, season 2, episode 13, NBC, 11 Feb. 2020. Hulu, https://www.hulu.com/watch/26be7472-2727-4d02-b77a-22bdeb79278e. Accessed 2 Oct. 2020.

Elements
Elements used in the first citation example are title, title of container 1, number, publisher, publication date, title of container 2, date (of 2nd container), and location.

Elements used in the second citation example are title, title of container 1, number, publisher, publication date, title of container 2, location, and the date accessed.

Television Viewed In an App

“Episode 4.” Downton Abbey, original UK version, season 3, episode 4, BBC, 19 Jan. 2013. Amazon Prime Video app.

“Episode 7.” Call the Midwife, season 10, episode 7, BBC, 14 Nov. 2021. Netflix app.

Elements
Elements used in the first citation example are title, title of container 1, version, number, publisher, publication date, and final supplemental element.

Elements used in the second citation example are title, title of container 1, number, publisher, publication date, and final supplemental element.

Radio Program

Live Radio Broadcast

“School’s Out Forever.” This American Life, NPR, 11 Mar. 2022.

Elements
Elements used in this example are title, title of container, publisher, and publication date.

Radio Listened to Online

“Kazuo Ishiguro Draws on His Songwriting Past to Write Novels About the Future.” Fresh Air. NPR, 8 Apr. 2022, www.npr.org/2022/04/08/1091256917/kazuo-ishiguro-draws-on-his-songwriting-past-to-write-novels-about-the-future.

Elements
Elements used in this example are title, title of container, publisher, publication date, and location.

Podcast
If the podcast is self-contained, it will need one container. If the podcast is within a larger site, like the last example below, it will use two containers.

Brown, Brené. “Brené with Jason Sudeikis and Brendan Hunt on Ted Lasso.” Unlocking Us with Brené Brown, Parcast Network, 7 Oct. 2020. Podcasts app.

Fogarty, Mignon. “The Oxford comma. And should you start a sentence with ‘and’?” Grammar Girl Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing, episode 866, Quick and Dirty Tips, 10 Mar. 2022. Podcasts app.

Rutherford, Adam, and Hanna Fry. “The Colour Conundrum.” The Curious Cases of Rutherford and Fry, series 19, BBC, 24 Mar. 2022. www.bbc.co.uk/sounds/play/m0015lx9.

Elements
Elements generally used with a podcast are host, title of the episode, title of the container (program name), the publisher (or network), the publication date, and the location. With the first two examples, the location is added as a supplemental element at the end. In the last example, a second container with the title of the 2nd container and the location are used.

Film or DVD
Films viewed on a DVD or in the theater would need one container. A film viewed online or in an app will need two containers.

Film Viewed Online

Mulan. Directed by Barry Cook and Tony Bancroft, Disney, 1998. Netflix, www.netflix.com.

Elements
Elements used in this citation example are title, contributors, publisher, publication date, title of container 2, and location.

DVD

Romeo and Juliet. Directed by Baz Luhrmann, 20th Century Fox, 1996. DVD.

Elements
Elements used in this citation example are title, contributor, publisher, publication date, and final supplemental element.

Album or Song

Album

Joel, Billy. Piano Man. Columbia, 1973.

Lady Gaga. The Fame Monster. Interscope, 2009.

Elements
Elements used in these citation examples are author, title, publisher, and publication date.

Song

Lady Gaga. "Dance in the Dark." The Fame Monster, Interscope, 2009.

21 Pilots. “Good Day.” Scaled and Icy, Fueled by Ramen, 2021. Spotify app.

Elements
Elements used in these citation examples are author, title, title of container (album), publisher, and publication date.

If the song was from an app, that is added as a supplemental element after the publication date as in the second example.

Television film and video graphic
Image — Photograph or Artwork
In the 8th edition of the MLA Handbook, images from the web will most likely need just one container. Images from other types of sources should follow guidelines for those particular sources.

Wootten, Bayard. Woman Resting. 1937. Louis Round Wilson Special Collections Library, North Carolina Collection Photographic Archives, 12 Feb. 2013, http://library.unc.edu/wilson/.

Online Video
In the 8th edition of the MLA Handbook, videos accessed via web will most likely need just one container.

Digoxin Nursing Pharmacology NCLEX (Cardiac Glycosides). YouTube, uploaded by RegisteredNurseRN, 9 Mar. 2019, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S73GT32EE48.

Television or Radio Program
In the 8th edition of the MLA Handbook, television or radio programs may need two containers. In addition to the original airing information, you may need a second container to show how you accessed the program.

"In the Graveyard." New Amsterdam, season 2, episode 13, NBC, 11 Feb. 2020. Hulu, https://www.hulu.com/watch/26be7472-2727-4d02-b77a-22bdeb79278e. Accessed 2 Oct. 2020.

NOTE: The title is normally italicized; however, when the item is part of a whole (an episode within a series for example), the title is contained within quotation marks.

Film or DVD
In the 8th edition of the MLA Handbook, films may need two containers but a DVD would need just one.

One Container (Example from DVD)

Luhrmann, Baz, director. Romeo + Juliet. 1996. Performance by Leonardo DiCaprio, Claire Danes, and John Leguizamo, 20th Century Fox, 2004.

Two Containers

Cook, Barry, and Bancroft, Tony, directors. Mulan. 1998. Performance by Eddie Murphy, Donny Osmond, and Lea Salonga, Disney. Netflix, www.netflix.com/watch/14607635.

Album or Song
In the 8th edition of the MLA Handbook, albums or songs accessed from the web should be cited as websites or online videos. However, if you access an album or a song from a CD or vinyl the following information applies.

Album

Lady Gaga. The Fame Monster. Streamline/Konlive/Cherrytree/Interscope, 2009.

Song

Lady Gaga. "Dancer in the Dark." The Fame Monster, Streamline/Konlive/Cherrytree/Interscope, 2009.

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