Audio and Video Media | 17th Edition

An person holding a news microphone.The first entry is a sample footnote/endnote as it would appear the first time that a work is cited. Remember, while our examples begin with “1.”, notes should be numbered based on the order they occur in the paper.

The second entry is a shortened version for subsequent notes from the same source.

The third entry is the bibliographic citation that will be found at the end of the work. A bibliography is alphabetized by author’s last name.

NOTE: It is not always necessary to include a scene indicator (as seen below) when citing a film. If discussing the film more broadly, feel free to omit the descriptor and begin the note with the film’s title.

If the film was accessed via a streaming service, include a link at the end of the citation.

1. “Beach Flashback,” Moonlight, directed by Barry Jenkins (United States: A24, 2016), DVD.

2. Moonlight, Jenkins.

Jenkins, Barry. 2016. Moonlight. United States: A24.
Television Episodes
NOTE: Citations should include enough information for readers to identify the episode/segment being discussed. For a broader reference to a series as a whole, omit the episode details and use the creator in place of the director.

1. Deadwood, season 1, episode 4, “Here Was a Man,” directed by Alan Taylor, aired April 11, 2004, on HBO,

2. “Here Was a Man,” Taylor.

3. Taylor, Alan, dir. Deadwood. Season 1, episode 4, “Here Was a Man.” Aired April 11, 2004, on HBO.

1. Michael Hobbes and Peter Shamshiri, “The Rules,” June 29, 2023, in If Books Could Kill, podcast, MP3 audio, 25:17,

2. “The Rules,” Hobbes and Shamshiri.

3. Hobbes, Michael and Peter Shamshiri. “The Rules.” If Books Could Kill, June 29, 2023. Podcast.
Broadcast Interviews
NOTE: For a recorded interview that has been made available online, it is best to cite that interview as if it was an article. For an interview segment consulted online but not in article form, try to include a URL.

1. Will Ferrell, interview by David Letterman, The David Letterman Show, CBS, August 2, 2010,

2. Ferrell.

Ferrell, Will. Interview by David Letterman. The David Letterman Show. CBS, August 2, 2010.

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