Other Sources | 6th Edition
Click on the sections below to see the elements and examples of each type of reference for abstracts, book reviews, and software.
Personal communications, which are considered “nonrecoverable data” by the APA, are information that readers cannot typically access. These include personal interviews, emails, letters, and phone calls. This information should be cited within the text, but not included in a References list. For information on how to cite personal communications within the text, see the Personal Communications
NOTE: The new 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual has just released. OWL staff are working on updating our content. As always, please follow the guidelines in your course.