Other Sources | 6th Edition

4.5/5 starsClick on the sections below to see the elements and examples of each type of reference for abstracts, book reviews, and software.

Abstract
NOTE: It is preferable to find and cite the full text of an article, but abstracts can be used and cited when necessary.

Elements: Author’s last name, Author’s first and middle initial, & Last names and initials of other authors, if any. (Year of publication). Title of article [Abstract]. Title of Abstract Collection italicized, Volume number italicized, Page number.

Osborne, A. B., & Pizzacato, A. J. (1975). Distant effects of neural trauma [Abstract]. Society of Psychological and Behavioral Sciences Abstracts, 19, 718.

Book Review
NOTE: It is often preferable to find and cite the full book/ebook, but book reviews can be used and cited when what the reviewer has to say is applicable to your research.

Elements: Reviewers’s last name, Reviewer’s first and middle initials. (Year, Month and Day). Title of the review [Review of the book Title of the book italicized, by Author’s first and middle initials Author’s last name]. Title of the Periodical in which the Review is Published italicized, Volume number italicized(Issue number if non-consecutive pagination), Page numbers. If found online, include the DOI or a Retrieved from statement with the URL to the journal’s homepage

Flower, T. (1998, February 24). Blues sisters [Review of the book Blues legacies and black feminism: Gertrude “Ma” Rainey, Bessie Smith, and Billie Holiday, by A.Y. Davis]. Village Voice, 8, 139-141. Retrieved from http://www.villagevoice.com
Software
Elements: Author’s last name, Author’s first and middle initial, & Last names and initials of other authors, if any. (Year of publication). Title of program and Version if version is part of the program title [Computer software]. Place of publication: Publisher.

Adobe Photoshop 6 [Computer software]. (2000). San Jose, CA: Adobe Systems Incorporated.
Personal communications, which are considered “nonrecoverable data” by the APA, are information that readers cannot typically access. These include personal interviews, emails, letters, and phone calls. This information should be cited within the text, but not included in a References list. For information on how to cite personal communications within the text, see the Personal Communications page.
NOTE: The new 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual has just released. OWL staff are working on updating our content. As always, please follow the guidelines in your course.

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