Slide 1 — Types of Clauses
We have already seen that there are 2 basic types of clauses: independent clauses and dependent clauses.
An independent clause may stand alone. It is a complete sentence.
They will offer suggestions.
Sue is majoring in chemistry.
My worst fears have come true.
A dependent clause cannot stand alone. It is not a complete sentence.
if you don’t help us
after they had dinner
while we were sleeping
Here we have added an independent clause to each clause to make a complete sentence.
If you don’t help us, we will be in trouble.
Bob and Jill felt sleepy after they had dinner.
The storm began while we were sleeping.
An adverb dependent clause begins with an adverb or adverbial phrase.
as soon as
as soon as they had finished
even though I like it
so that everyone can see the result
As soon as they had finished, they went home.
Even though I like it, it costs too much.
I posted it on the Web so that everyone can see the result.
An adjective clause is another type of dependent clause. An adjective clause describes a noun in the sentence.
that we had wanted
whose movies are expensive
who greeted us at the door
Again, the above dependent clauses are not complete sentences.
Here we have added an independent clause to each adjective clause to make a complete sentence.
It is the house that we had wanted.
There is the theater whose movies are expensive.
The man who greeted us at the door was happy to see us.
An adjective clause begins with a relative pronoun.
that we preferred
whose climate is perfect
who gave me an injection
The program that we preferred was sold out.
Let’s look for an island whose climate is perfect.
That is the nurse who gave me an injection.
A noun clause is yet another type of dependent clause. A noun clause can take the place of a noun in the sentence.
what he saw
that you are tired
whether you like it or not
what the speaker said
Here we have added an independent clause to each noun clause to make a complete sentence.
He didn’t like what he saw.
I know that you are tired.
Whether you like it or not isn’t the point.
Do you agree with what the speaker said?
A noun clause begins with a noun clause marker.
whatever he cooks
why Kevin said that
what to do in this situation
Whatever he cooks is delicious.
I can’t understand why Kevin said that.
What to do in this situation isn’t clear.
Let’s look again at the relationship between independent and dependent clauses.
A dependent clause cannot stand alone. It needs an independent clause in order to be a complete sentence.
If you don’t help us, we can’t finish on time.
The phone rang while we were eating dinner.
That is the hospital in which my sister was born.
Where Pat went is a mystery to everyone.
On the next few screens you will see some clauses.
Decide if each clause is an independent clause or a dependent clause. Click on the best choice.
NOTE: No capital letters or punctuation will be used.
Slide 17-26 — Multiple Choice Questions
Slide 27 — Summary Slide
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