Unknown or Anonymous Author | 7th Edition

A person with a question markWhen the author of a work is not known, the title of the work will be used in place of the author. There are some important details to be aware of however.

  • If the title is long, it should be shortened for the in-text citation.
  • Titles should be in title case even though they will be in sentence case on the References page.
  • If the title is italicized in the reference, then it should also be italicized within the in-text citation.
Examples:

Children who are neglected suffer from trauma that can last a lifetime (Foundations of Social Literacy, 2018.)

According to Foundations of Social Literacy, children who are neglected suffer from trauma that can last a lifetime (2018).

  • If the title of the work is not italicized within the reference, use quotation marks around the title.
Examples:

Vitamin D deficiency affects approximately one billion people worldwide (“Medical Science Today,” 2019).

“Medical Science Today” professes that vitamin D deficiency affects approximately one billion people worldwide (2019).

  • If the work is attributed to “Anonymous,” use “Anonymous” in place of the author. There is no need to italicize or use quotes.
Example:

The field of psychology is filled with people who want to understand their own lives (Anonymous, 2020).

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