When the author of a work is not known, the title of the work will be used in place of the author. There are some important details to be aware of however.
- If the title is long, it should be shortened for the in-text citation.
- Titles should be in title case even though they will be in sentence case on the References page.
- If the title is italicized in the reference, then it should also be italicized within the in-text citation.
Children who are neglected suffer from trauma that can last a lifetime (Foundations of Social Literacy, 2018).
According to Foundations of Social Literacy, children who are neglected suffer from trauma that can last a lifetime (2018).
- If the title of the work is not italicized within the reference, use quotation marks around the title.
Vitamin D deficiency affects approximately one billion people worldwide (“Medical Science Today,” 2019).
“Medical Science Today” professes that vitamin D deficiency affects approximately one billion people worldwide (2019).
- If the work is attributed to “Anonymous,” use “Anonymous” in place of the author. There is no need to italicize or use quotes.
The field of psychology is filled with people who want to understand their own lives (Anonymous, 2020).