Types of Clauses

Video Transcript Slides 1-6

Slide 1 — Types of Clauses

We have already seen that there are 2 basic types of clauses: independent clauses and dependent clauses.

Slide 2

An independent clause may stand alone. It is a complete sentence.

Examples:

They will offer suggestions.
Sue is majoring in chemistry.
My worst fears have come true.

Slide 3

A dependent clause cannot stand alone. It is not a complete sentence.

Examples:

if you don’t help us

after they had dinner

while we were sleeping

NOTE: The above dependent clauses are all adverb clauses. They are not complete sentences.

Slide 4

Here we have added an independent clause to each clause to make a complete sentence.

Examples:

If you don’t help us, we’ll be in trouble.

Bob and Jill felt sleepy after they had dinner.

The storm began while we were sleeping.

Slide 5

An adverb dependent clause begins with a subordinator.

Examples of subordinators:

after
although
as
as soon as
because
before
even though
if
since
so that
unless
until
when
whether
while

Slide 6

More examples of adverb dependent clauses:

as soon as they had finished

even though I like it

so that everyone can see the result

Used in complete sentences:

As soon as they had finished, they went home.

Even though I like it, it costs too much.

I posted it on the Web so that everyone can see the result.

Video Transcript Slides 7-12

Slide 7

An adjective clause is another type of dependent clause. An adjective clause describes a noun in the sentence.

Examples:

that we had wanted

whose movies are expensive

who greeted us at the door

Again, the above dependent clauses are not complete sentences.

NOTE: Adjective clauses are also called relative clauses.

Slide 8

Here we have added an independent clause to each adjective clause to make a complete sentence.

Examples:

It is the house that we had wanted.

There is the theater whose movies are expensive.

The man who greeted us at the door was happy to see us.

Slide 9

An adjective clause begins with a relative pronoun.

Examples of relative pronouns:

that
which
who
whom
whose
where

NOTE: Sometimes these are called “clause markers” because they mark the beginning of a clause.

Slide 10

More example of adjective dependent clauses:

that we preferred

whose climate is perfect

who gave me an injection

Used in complete sentences:

The program that we preferred was sold out.

Let’s look for an island whose climate is perfect.

That is the nurse who gave me an injection.

Slide 11

A noun clause is yet another type of dependent clause. A noun clause can take the place of a noun in the sentence.

Examples:

what he saw
that you are tired
whether you like it or not
what the speaker said

Slide 12

Here we have added an independent clause to each noun clause to make a complete sentence.

Examples:

He didn’t like what he saw.

I know that you are tired.

Whether you like it or not isn’t the point.

Do you agree with what the speaker said?

Video Transcript Slides 13-27

Slide 13

A noun clause begins with a noun clause marker.

Examples:

how
that
what
when
where
which
who
whom
whose
why
however
whatever
whenever
wherever
whichever
whoever
whomever

Slide 14

More examples of noun dependent clauses:

whatever he cooks

why Kevin said that

what to do in this situation

Used in complete sentences:

Whatever he cooks is delicious.

I can’t understand why Kevin said that.

What to do in this situation isn’t clear.

Slide 15

Let’s look again at the relationship between independent and dependent clauses.

A dependent clause cannot stand alone. It needs an independent clause in order to be a complete sentence.

Examples:

If you don’t help us, we can’t finish on time.

The phone rang while we were eating dinner.

That is the place where my sister was born.

Where Pat went is a mystery to everyone.

Slide 16

On the next few screens you will see some clauses.

Decide if each clause is an independent clause or a dependent clause. Click on the best choice.

NOTE: No capital letters or punctuation will be used.

Slide 17-26 — Multiple Choice Questions

Slide 21 — Summary Slide

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